This is an English translation of the article by Igor Torba and Sergiy Grechukha published in the Ukrainian Developers Community.

Some time ago we faced a challenge of creating a comprehensive test coverage report for all unit and instrumentation tests (android-tests) run within the project. While setting up separate coverage reports for unit and instrumentation testing is a no brainer at all, creating a unified report is an issue that requires out-of-the-box approaches. We came up with a non-trivial solution that I'm going to describe in this article.

To better exemplify the case, we created a basic Android app which purpose is to make a REST request with a button click, receive our IP address in response and show it on the screen.

android unit testing

To simplify testing, we used the model - view - presenter (MVP) pattern and Dependency Injection (DI) with Dagger 2 in our application. The project layout looks as follows:

Screen Shot 2016-09-08 at 1.21.22 PM

REST API design was implemented with RX + Retrofit2 (surprise, surprise!); DI was deployed on Server API so that we can easier replace it in UI tests down the road.

Screen Shot 2016-09-08 at 1.27.37 PM

So whenever user clicks on "GET IP" button, our activity uses a presenter method to execute the request.

Screen Shot 2016-09-08 at 1.30.10 PM

When presenter has a response, it calls respective callback methods.

Screen Shot 2016-09-08 at 1.33.23 PM

At this point, pay your attention to custom CSS class AppSchedulers that we used for RX. Its purpose is to overlap asynchronous streams with synchronous streams during a testing process.

Creating test cases

Now it's time for testing. Just for a better example, we created several tests:

  • Unit test;
  • UI Espresso test;
  • Robolectric test

Unit Test

We used Mockito for creating mock objects:

Screen Shot 2016-09-08 at 1.42.38 PM

UI Espresso Test

Here we use a custom rule to substitute dataComponent for MockServerApi that will emulate our Server and its responses.

Screen Shot 2016-09-08 at 1.46.59 PM

Robolectric test

We ran this test just as a tick-off and in order to include this test type to the project; in fact, it doesn't provide any value to our testing!

Screen Shot 2016-09-08 at 1.49.20 PM

Measuring test coverage

Now when we have all these tests put in place, we can move on to measure test coverage. As mentioned above, there's no Green Button when it comes to a unified test coverage report. In order to create a unified report, go to you Unit tests and run them all with coverage.

Screen Shot 2016-09-08 at 1.53.09 PM

After all tests have been run you'll be able to see a coverage report:

unified test coverage report in Android

android test coverage report

Android-Test Coverage Report

Now let's generate Android-Test Coverage Report. For this purpose we had to "fine-tune" our gradle file (I'll show you later how) prior to moving to gradle tab in Android Studio:

  • find createDebugCoverageTest task;
  • double click;
  • wait for all tests to run

Note: you should have your test emulator launched or an Android device connected.

When Android Studio notifies you that everything is OK, you'll be able to find a test coverage report at “YOUR_PROJECT_PATH\app\build\reports\coverage\debug\index.html”:

Android gradle plugin

Unifying Test Coverage Reports for Unit- and Android-Tests

Now when we have unit-, android- and robolectric-tests covered, we want to unify them in order to understand whether our test coverage meets project requirements as well as better analyze code quality. Unification can be achieved with two tools - Jacoco and SonarQube. Let's set them up in separate *.gradle files (jacoco.gradle and sonarqube.gradle accordingly) and connect them in our build.gradle file:

apply from: './fileName.gradle'

Also note that you need to add several lines to your app/build.gradle to enable test coverage measurement (I mentioned this above, remember?):

Screen Shot 2016-09-08 at 2.25.56 PM

Jacoco is a free Java plugin that allows for basic creation of test reports.

Screen Shot 2016-09-08 at 2.29.48 PM

Now let's look inside:

  • Add Jacoco plugin for gradle;
  • Install Jacoco version;
  • Create task that will run tests and unify their results

Task description in a nutshell: let's call it taskName, configure its type and tasks which it'll depend on (or which will depend on this task), indicate its group and provide a description.

Then define a filter, i.e. a list of files to be excluded from the analysis. In our case, it's a list of android-files generated, retrolambdas and Dagger files. We set up sourceDirectories and classDirectories and added fileFilter.

And now the most interesting part comes - let's create executionData from where we'll source data for unification: test coverage report for Unit tests is generated in *.exec file and stored at: YOUR_PROJECT_PATH\app\build\jacoco\*.exec

androidTest report is saved in *.ec file located at: YOUR_PROJECT_PATH\app\build\outputs\code-coverage\connected\**.ec

At this point we're able to generate a unified report. To do this, open your console and enter the following command:

./gradlew clean createDebugCoverageReport jacocoTestReport

Sequence of commands is very important: android-tests first, unit-tests second (enabled via testDebugUnitTests).

And that's it, we can now view a comprehensive test coverage report for android- and unit-tests. You can find it at: YOUR_PROJECT_PATH\app\build\reports\jacoco\jacocoTestReport\index.html

While it all seems cool, one feature concerned us a lot! I've told you before we added Robotolectric tests to our test coverage, remember? Now is the moment of their glory! It turns out that this type of tests is not included in any out-of-box coverage report! Yet, there's one remedy: add the following lines to your app/build.gradle file:

Screen Shot 2016-09-08 at 2.49.46 PM

Now we're all set: we have a truly full test coverage report and all that's left to do is to relaunch a task.

However, we wanted to do more and see whether we could keep our entire code analysis including test coverage, style, quality, etc. in one hub. We decided to feed our test coverage report to sonarQube. To cut it short, launch sonarQube, install it and start up sonarQube server. Having installed sonarQube, you can now add a plethora of different plugins available for it. In our case we used the following plugins: Android, CheckStyle, FindBugs, Git, Java, XML. You can also create custom rules for your code analysis depending on your end goal and preferences. Once you're on friendly terms with sonarQube server, you can go back to your Android project and set up a sonarQube task:

Screen Shot 2016-09-08 at 3.02.32 PM

Clarification:

  • Add gradle plugin;
  • Add sonarQube-host to extension for convenience;
  • Describe sonarQube settings (see examples)

In our case, pay attention to the following settings:

  • sonar.java.test.binaries
  • sonar.java.binaries
  • sonar.tests
  • sonar.jacoco.reportPath
  • sonar.jacoco.itReportPath

Let's run: ./gradlew clean createDebugCoverageReport jacocoTestReport sonarqube

Now go to your sonarQube server, find your project there and analyze it:

Screen Shot 2016-09-08 at 3.07.37 PM

Screen Shot 2016-09-08 at 3.08.01 PM

The project is available on BitBucket.

Images courtesy of dou.ua

Are you looking to hire seasoned QA engineers for your in-house or offshore project fast and with no HR, IT and administrative hassle?
Let's Talk NOW!
Vik is our Brand Journalist and Head of Online Marketing / PR with 11+ years of international experience in IT B2B. He's also a guest blog contributor to Business2community, SitePoint, Journal of mHealth, Wearable Valley and other IT portals. You can contact him directly on LinkedIn.

Leave a comment

Get a Quote